A collection of all the things I stumble upon throughout the day. It is random. It is diverse. BUT it is really cool so check it out…

Here is a link to a lot of helpful forms and templates!

AND… here is another!

Slide Show Design- Slide Carnival and Canva

Try building in an in-site chat function with Tawk.To

A two-tier architecture is a software architecture in which a presentation layer or interface runs on a client, and a data layer or data structure gets stored on a server. Separating these two components into different locations represents a two-tier architecture, as opposed to a single-tier architecture. Other kinds of multi-tier architectures add additional layers in distributed software design.

A three-tier architecture is a client-server architecture in which the functional process logic, data access, computer data storage and user interface are developed and maintained as independent modules on separate platforms. Three-tier architecture is a software design pattern and a well-established software architecture.

Lossless Compression Algorithms:

Lossless data compression algorithms usually exploit statistical redundancy to represent data more concisely without losing information, so that the process is reversible. Lossless compression is possible because most real-world data has statistical redundancy. For most types of data, lossless compression techniques can reduce the space needed by only about 50%. For greater compression, one must use a lossy compression technique. Note, however, that only certain types of data — graphics, audio, and video — can tolerate lossy compression.

  • Investopedia “Lossless Compression”

BlockChain Technology (a.k.a BitCoin): 

Blockchain is seen as the main technological innovation of Bitcoin, since it stands as proof of all the transactions on the network. A block is the ‘current’ part of a blockchain which records some or all of the recent transactions, and once completed goes into the blockchain as permanent database. Each time a block gets completed, a new block is generated. There is a countless number of such blocks in the blockchain. So are the blocks randomly placed in a blockchain? No, they are linked to each other (like a chain) in proper linear, chronological order with every block containing a hash of the previous block.

To use conventional banking as an analogy, the blockchain is like a full history of banking transactions. Bitcoin transactions are entered chronologically in a blockchain just the way bank transactions are. Blocks, meanwhile, are like individual bank statements.

Based on the Bitcoin protocol, the blockchain database is shared by all nodes participating in a system. The full copy of the blockchain has records of every Bitcoin transaction ever executed. It can thus provide insight about facts like how much value belonged a particular address at any point in the past.

The ever-growing size of the blockchain is considered by some to be a problem due to issues like storage and synchronization. On an average, every 10 minutes, a new block is appended to the block chain through mining.

See paper wallet, litecoins, altcoin, and dogecoin for a further examination of this technology.

  • Investopedia “Blockchain and Bitcoin”

Proxy Servers: 

A proxy server functions as an intermediary between a web browser (such as Internet Explorer) and the Internet. Proxy servers help improve web performance by storing a copy of frequently used webpages.


DNS is an abbreviation for Domain Name System, a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to locate computers and services through user-friendly names. The most important function of DNS servers is the translation (resolution) of human-memorable domain names and hostnames into the corresponding numeric Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, the second principal name space of the Internet which is used to identify and locate computer systems and resources on the Internet.

  • Techcrunch “DNS”


Launched in 2015, Ethereum is a decentralized software platform that enables SmartContracts and Distributed Applications (ĐApps) to be built and run without any downtime, fraud, control or interference from a third party. Ethereum is not just a platform but also a programming language (Turing complete) running on a blockchain, helping developers to build and publish distributed applications. The potential applications of Ethereum are wide ranging.

  • Investopedia “Ethereum”


An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build automation tools and a debugger.

Affirmative Action Plans: Dedication to diversity.


SQL (pronounced “ess-que-el”) stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems.

Bubble Sort:

Bubble sort, sometimes referred to as a sinking sort, is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list to be sorted, compares each pair of adjacent items and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.

Sublime Text3:

These are the in-progress versions of Sublime Text 3, and they are updated more frequently. Feel free to use them, but keep in mind you will be running less tested code, and you’ll be seeing many more update notification prompts.

The current Sublime Text 3 dev build is 3109. Details on new dev build releases are posted on the forum.

Sublime Text 3 dev builds are currently available to registered users only.

For notification about new versions, follow sublimehq on twitter.


Name server changes usually take 24 to 48 hours to fully start working. This period, called propagation, is the projected length of time it takes for root name servers and cache records across the entire web to be updated with your website’s DNS information.

Random Tip Alert:

If you need a cool way to spice up your boring powerpoint presentations- try embedding a live web browser. Follow the link here!


Internet Relay Chat, or IRC, is a protocol that allows users that connect to Internet Relay Chat Servers to have conversations with others in real time. Users connect to IRC Servers using an IRC Client. There are many popular IRC clients available on the Internet for all operating systems. It is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that a user can install on their system

ex: There are small IRC servers (for example, OperaNet) to medium IRC servers (freenode and DalNet, which have about 30,000 users) and big IRC servers (for example, EFNet, UnderNet, which have over 100,000 users). An IRC client is needed to use IRC.

 Pocket is a great resource for storing articles that you want to read later. Unable to finish that last paragraph? Effortlessly save it to Pocket via a chrome extension to continue reading. Guess what? Once it is saved to Pocket you do not need wireless to access the full article! Sorry that sounded so much like a sales pitch… I don’t get a royalty per download I promise…

Tiny Scanner is an application that transforms your mobile device into a portable scanner. The most used function is getting that perfect signature on your cover letter, or any online document that needs signing. It is available on both the Google Play Store and iTunes. Just open the app take a photo of your signature on a clear piece of paper and voila its uploaded. Simple. Easy. Professional.

Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software distribution model in which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet.

You can’t just copy and paste any image off of the internet for your use. There is extensive copyright laws prohibiting such actions. However there are free sites that offer high resolutions images for your use… for free….your welcome.

The Reciprocity Ring is an exercise that enables the principle of pay it forward in your group. Engage in a Reciprocity Ring and you’ll witness in real time the power and potential of social networking.

Stock InDesign allows for free templates to be customized with InDesign.

Answer The Public allows users to get what keywords are being searched.

Yoast is the ideal SEO WordPress plugin. Coupled with Moz allows for a good handle on your company’s SEO.


The act of obtaining or buying goods and services. This process includes preparation and processing of a demand as well as the end receipt and approval of payment. It often involves
(1) purchase planning,
(2) standards determination,
(3) specifications development,
(4) supplier research and selection,
(5) value analysis,
(6) financing,
(7) price negotiation,
(8) making the purchase,
(9) supply contract administration,
(10) inventory control and stores, and
(11) disposals and other related functions.
The process of procurement is often part of a company’s strategy because the ability to purchase certain materials will determine if operations will continue. A business will not be able to survive if it’s price of procurement is more than the profit it makes on selling the actual product. Companies like Procurify make this easy!

Mobify helps build your mobile customer engagement.

Buzz Word Alert:

K nearest neighbor algorithm

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Return on Equity (ROE)

Pareto Chart

Contra Marketing Techniques

ORM- Online Relationship management

SLA- service level agreement

Tracking pixel

White Papers- marketing

Tranche (Funding Allocation)


Proof of concept (POC)

Capitalization table

Signaling approach/ risk

Fiduciary duties


DCF- Discounted cash flow evaluation

Market cap

Burn down chart/ rate for task completion

Weissman Score

Lossless data compression

DOA- Dead on Arrival

Term sheet from investors

Key man clause

Stock vesting with ESO – Employee stock option plans

Mega- cloud storage site

Staging Site

Here is some terms that may only apply to financial markets and instruments in the United States, some will be universal:

Common size income statement is an income statement in which each account is expressed as a percentage of the value of sales. This type of financial statementcan be used to allow for easy analysis between companies or between time periods of a company.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private, non-profit organization market regulator whose primary purpose is to establish and improve generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public’s interest.

EDGAR, the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system, performs automated collection, validation, indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions by companies and others who are required by law to file forms with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC“).

A gearing ratio is a general classification describing a financial ratio that compares some form of owner’s equity (or capital) to funds borrowed by the company. Gearing is a measurement of the entity’s financial leverage, which demonstrates the degree to which a firm’s activities are funded by owner’s funds versus creditor’s funds.

From Investopedia- Choosing your stock valuation method:

When trying to figure out which valuation method to use to value a stock for the first time, most investors will quickly discover the overwhelming number of valuation techniques available to them today. There are the simple to use ones, such as the comparables method, and there are the more involved methods, such as the discounted cash flow model. Which one should you use? Unfortunately, there is no one method that is best suited for every situation. Each stock is different, and each industry sector has unique properties that may require varying valuation approaches. The good news is that this article will attempt to explain the general cases of when to use most of the valuation methods. (Learn several tools that the pros use to predict where the markets are heading.

Two Categories of Valuation Models
Valuation methods typically fall into two main categories: absolute and relative valuation models. Absolute valuation models attempt to find the intrinsic or “true” value of an investment based only on fundamentals. Looking at fundamentals simply mean you would only focus on such things asdividends, cash flow and growth rate for a single company, and not worry about any other companies. Valuation models that fall into this category include the dividend discount model,discounted cash flow model, residual income models and asset-based models.

In contrast to absolute valuation models, relative valuation models operate by comparing the company in question to other similar companies. These methods generally involve calculating multiples or ratios, such as the price-to-earnings multiple, and comparing them to the multiples of other comparable firms. For instance, if the P/E of the firm you are trying to value is lower than the P/E multiple of a comparable firm, that company may be said to be relatively undervalued. Generally, this type of valuation is a lot easier and quicker to do than the absolute valuation methods, which is why many investors and analysts start their analysis with this method.

Let’s take a look at some of the more popular valuation methods available to investors, and see when it is appropriate to use each model. (For related reading, see Top Things To Know For An Investment Banking Interview.)

Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
The dividend discount model (DDM) is one of the most basic of the absolute valuation models. The dividend model calculates the “true” value of a firm based on the dividends the company pays its shareholders. The justification for using dividends to value a company is that dividends represent the actual cash flows going to the shareholder, thus valuing the present value of these cash flows should give you a value for how much the shares should be worth. So, the first thing you should check if you want to use this method is if the company actually pays a dividend.

Secondly, it is not enough for the company to just a pay dividend; the dividend should also be stable and predictable. The companies that pay stable and predictable dividends are typically matureblue-chip companies in mature and well-developed industries. These type of companies are often best suited for this type of valuation method. For instance, take a look at the dividends and earnings of company XYZ below and see if you think the DDM model would be appropriate for this company:

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Dividends Per Share $0.50 $0.53 $0.55 $0.58 $0.61 $0.64
Earnings Per Share $4.00 $4.20 $4.41 $4.63 $4.86 $5.11

In this example, the earnings per share are consistently growing at an average rate of 5%, and the dividends are also growing at the same rate. This means the firm’s dividend is consistent with its earnings trend which would make it easy to predict for future periods. In addition, you should check the payout ratio to make sure the ratio is consistent. In this case the ratio is 0.125 for all six years which is good, and makes this company an ideal candidate for the dividend model. (For more on the DDM, see Digging Into the Dividend Discount Model.)

Discounted Cash Flow Model (DCF)
What if the company doesn’t pay a dividend or its dividend pattern is irregular? In this case, move on to check if the company fits the criteria to use the discounted cash flow model. Instead of looking at dividends, the DCF model uses a firm’s discounted future cash flows to value the business. The big advantage of this approach is that it can be used with a wide variety of firms that don’t pay dividends, and even for companies that do pay dividends, such as company XYZ in the previous example.

For example, take a look at the simplified cash flows of the following firm:

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Operating Cash Flow 438 789 1462 890 2565 510
Capital Expenditures 785 995 1132 1256 2235 1546
Free Cash Flow -347 -206 330 -366 330 -1036

In this snapshot, the firm has produced increasing positive operating cash flow, which is good. But you can see by the high level of capital expenditures that the company is still investing a lot of its cash back into the business in order to grow. This results in negative free cash flows for four of the six years, and would make it extremely difficult or impossible to predict the cash flows for the next five to ten years. So, in order to use the DCF model most effectively, the target company should generally have stable, positive and predictable free cash flows. Companies that have the ideal cash flows suited for the DCF model are typically the mature firms that are past the growth stages. (To learn more about this method, see Taking Stock of Discounted Cash Flow.)

Comparables Method
The last method we’ll look at is sort of a catch-all method that can be used if you are unable to value the company using any of the other models, or if you simply don’t want to spend the time crunching the numbers. The method doesn’t attempt to find an intrinsic value for the stock like the previous two valuation methods do; it simply compares the stock’s price multiples to a benchmark to determine if the stock is relatively undervalued or overvalued. The rationale for this is based off of the Law of One Price, which states that two similar assets should sell for similar prices. The intuitive nature of this method is one of the reasons it is so popular.

The reason why it can be used in almost all circumstances is due to the vast number of multiples that can be used, such as the price-to-earnings (P/E), price-to-book (P/B), price-to-sales (P/S), price-to-cash flow (P/CF), and many others. Of these ratios though, the P/E ratio is the most commonly used one because it focuses on the earnings of the company, which is one of the primary drivers of an investments value.

When can you use the P/E multiple for a comparison? You can generally use it if the company is publicly traded because you need the price of the stock and you need to know the earnings of the company. Secondly, the company should be generating positive earnings because a comparison using a negative P/E multiple would be meaningless. And lastly, the earnings quality should be strong. That is, earnings should not be too volatile and the accounting practices used by management should not distort the reported earnings drastically. (Companies can manipulate their numbers, so you need to learn how to determine the accuracy of EPS. Read How To Evaluate The Quality Of EPS.)

These are just some of the main criteria investors should look at when choosing which ratio or multiples to use. If the P/E multiple cannot be used, simply look at using a different ratio such as the price-to-sales multiple.

The Bottom Line
No one valuation method is perfect for every situation, but by knowing the characteristics of the company, you can select a valuation method that best suits the situation. In addition, investors are not limited to just using one method. Often, investors will perform several valuations to create a range of possible values or average all of the valuations into one.

RE: Investopedia


**This blog is not all original content- I do not own all the content. The purpose of this blog is to collect valuable insights across various channels, publications, and articles, and present them in a digestible and current way. Some material has been copied, and referenced in some articles, and should not be treated as original work.